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Pain in the ship emissions standards
Release Date:2010-4-19 12:47:57   News sources:Shen Xing airbag
News Type:Enterprise News

Climate warming is the most serious facing humanity today one of the challenges, control and mitigation of energy use in CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions to address global warming is of major significance. Emissions from international shipping industry, the main component of greenhouse gas CO2, roughly equivalent to its total world CO2 emissions 3%, and the figure will be as world trade and increased international shipping growing. Starting from the overall design of the ship to reduce ship CO2 design index, is fundamental to control greenhouse gas emissions, the ship one way. However, in our current shipbuilding industry standards, and does not specifically request the ship CO2 emission reduction, involving less relevant standards. Standardization of the ship greenhouse gas emissions need to be depth. IMO speed reduction action On greenhouse gas emissions, the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) agreed to a two-step methods to discuss the issue of greenhouse gas emissions: the first step to limit or reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and related technical issues; second step for the policy issues, including the "equal application" or "common but differentiated principle" applies. International Maritime Organization (IMO) at the MEPC 55th session of "limit and reduce CO2 emissions from international maritime transport mechanisms work plan" and timetable. But with the increasing pressure of international environmental protection, IMO completed ahead of schedule "to reduce CO2 emissions from international ships mechanism for developing" work "CO2 emissions index mechanism" and "CO2 emissions benchmark." IMO MEPC 57th session of the formal adoption of the MARPOL Annex Ⅵ on reducing harmful gas emissions rules for ships amendment. MARPOL Annex Ⅵ rules on the prevention of air pollution from ships entered into force was in May 2005, on behalf of the world's merchant shipping gross tonnage of 74.77% of the 49 countries have ratified the Annex. 57th session of the MEPC set up a greenhouse gas emission control group, approved the greenhouse gas emissions on the ship to speed up research proposals, and after the increase at a "CO2 emissions index mechanism" will be inter-sessional working group. At the meeting, Denmark and Japan were submitted to the "new shipbuilding mandatory CO2 Design Index" and "the actual operating state of the ship loading capacity of CO2 emissions per unit of index development" as the subject of the report and after the formation of a reservation of Denmark "design index values defined in the main hull and the vessel size and closely related" findings, while adding Japan "fully consider the actual condition of the vessel shipping emissions index" of the new CO2 design index formula. Visible and effective to reduce or control of the ship greenhouse gas emissions on the negative impact of the marine environment will be IMO for a time in the marine environmental protection is an important work and issues. Ship CO2 design index too-apparent Ship CO2 design index is a feasible policy instrument to reduce greenhouse gases, it technical design requirements and operational and market measures to separate. CO2 design index of a vessel designed to make the energy efficiency of new ships meet benchmark requirements, and make new ships of CO2 emissions to a minimum. Danish Shipowners Association (DSA) used a sample of 212 boats to analyze and study the method of calculating CO2 index, sample data are mostly to general cargo ships and container ships, for example, but in order to study whether differences exist between different ship types, research also consider the dry bulk and liquid bulk cargo such as ship. The study, CO2 design index and fuel consumption, engine power, speed and load of ships related to the four parameters. According to the formula CO2 design index, through a large number of ship design parameters of existing collection and calculation, can find the same type of ships of different tonnage CO2 design index, but also can be obtained by curve fitting to the baseline CO2 design index equation (different types of ships have different curve equation). In order to build environment-friendly ships, the new ship design CO2 index value should be lower than the same tonnage, corresponding to the base line of CO2 design index value. If we require all new ships of the CO2 average below this benchmark, it can move down the baseline, and in accordance with the standard construction of new vessels (index comparison between only the same type and load of the ship). Of course, the baseline can also be carried out according to specific implementation requirements move up and down. Be noted that the index can reflect on the ship's environmental performance of greenhouse gas emissions, as CO2 emissions from ships is the most important greenhouse gas, CO2 emissions, therefore only consider the issue. As the ship design CO2 index formula now depends only on the ship design parameters, that is the index related only to ship design, so the concept of the proposed can effectively promote the efficient ship design and development. In the 58th session of the MEPC, the proposed new shipbuilding EEDI new formula, as the baseline research. The formula for fuel consumption, engine power and load are made for further refinement. The formula has not yet passed, but the meeting decided to study it further. Difficult to meet the needs of existing standards Practice shows that, CO2 design index value is closely related to the size of ship, CO2 design index of the reference value depends on the difference between the ship hull design parameters such as load and ship. By the CO2 design index formula can be seen in fuel consumption and load under certain conditions, enhance the speed of the ship can reduce the CO2 design index. By optimizing the hull form can be under a certain engine power, effectively reducing fuel consumption and improve shipping speed and load. The reason is that good ship design can effectively reduce the resistance of ships, while the ship resistance and propulsion is the decision of the two parts of the ship fast. In the ship, the main dimensions, hull form factor, bow stern end of the shape, cross section area curve shape and fully loaded waterline shape and other factors on the weight of the ship structure, resistance performance, propulsion performance, cabin volume and load such a large extent have impact. But requires that the ship design is a combination of factors to consider various issues, ship design should take into account the overall layout, process, structure, stability, seakeeping, and navigation and economy and other aspects of the existing connections and contradictions various requirements. The deck layout, from the perspective of increased use of space in the same host and increase speed as much as possible under the conditions of the ship load. Denmark submitted to the MEPC57 a technical report that: lower fuel consumption compared to the rate of increase in engine power is not the case of increased speed, reduced speed in the case of non-reducing engine power, in the same host and the speed of conditions to increase the ship's load reduction on the CO2 design index has obvious effect. Possession in the ship design, as far as possible to set the direction of flow lines along the hull, along the flow direction should be streamlined profile and minimize wetland area possessed. In addition, use energy-saving host, can reduce fuel consumption; optimization principal auxiliary, co-ordination between the shaft and propeller, can improve the transmission efficiency; fuel index exceeds the standards, it will lead to combustion deterioration and incomplete combustion, and equipment cause varying degrees of damage, reducing the power unit efficiency; pollution will increase the end of ship resistance, leading to changes in the functioning propeller, resulting in decreased propeller efficiency, resulting in speed of decline; long and narrow as far as possible the arrangement of the superstructure to reduce by the small navigation in the course of the air resistance; hull surface roughness on the friction significantly affected, for example: welding vessel resistance increased roughness average of 1.27%, for the riveted boats, which average about 16% resistance increase, its impact can not be ignored. These factors will be related to many shipbuilding industry standards, including the overall ship structure, ship maintenance and repair of marine power plant and the fuel so. From the domestic distribution of existing standards can be seen, the ship involved in greenhouse gas emissions standards in the technical content of the provisions in the less, there is no specific contents of the ship greenhouse gas emissions. Overall the ship, the hull for the general arrangement and profile, there are no corresponding standard, the standard scale on the ship only "sub-section of the Yangtze River barge-type scale series" of six, and that several standards on other transport ship no practical significance. Research and development of standards should be strengthened Greenhouse gas emissions of the ship carried. Technical CO2 design index is not dependent on ship operations and operational measures, but rather depends on the relevant ship design parameters, and can be expressed with the formula. Under the current formula for determining, CO2 design index and the ship speed, load, engine power and fuel consumption rate of the four main parameters, the improvement of these parameters will also be further optimized CO2 index. Reduce ship emissions of carbon dioxide pollution, means that many aspects from the above-depth change. From the concept of ship design and technology, the ship CO2 emission reduction is necessary to fully consider how to optimize ship design and promote the design to reduce drag and improve propulsive efficiency. At present, the vast majority of business-to-ship emissions is still not enough importance attached to the proposed domestic shipbuilding and machine manufacturing enterprises should actively take action to seriously measure their own ship and a host of existing CO2 emissions, for optimizing the hull form to improve ship energy efficiency. Timely follow international developments. Should promptly follow the International Maritime Organization (IMO) the dynamic, highly concerned about the introduction of IMO, such as the "new shipbuilding mandatory CO2 Design Index" and the "new international standards for ship building energy efficiency index" and so on. In addition, we seek proposals that meet the conditions of our country. If the IMO-related greenhouse gas emissions and China's emission reduction goals, the development by IMO to develop mechanisms to enhance the energy level of China's shipbuilding industry. Concerned about the standardization of demand reduction targets. Standardization work for the actual reduction of services, standardization of real play to make, it must thoroughly research, production, use first-line, fully aware of the actual demand for standardized service object. Greenhouse gas emissions standards for ships must meet the objective economic circumstances and conditions, if the ship greenhouse gas emissions standards are too high, easily separated from economic and technological environment, which are likely to form the implementation of standards is not easy to implement in the situation. This is because, research and design units are the main issues of concern to advanced ship technology, ship design if they do not have the technology advanced, will soon be out of the market; enterprises are the main issues of concern to the ship's economical sex, better economy can be reduced ship operating costs of enterprises so that enterprises in the dominant position of market competition. Can be concluded from the above analysis, to promote the standardization of ship emissions of greenhouse gases, we need to scientifically identify the "safety and environmental protection, technological advancement, economic practicality," the best combination of three points. Ship management sector to develop appropriate safety and environmental protection laws, strict law enforcement, forming a fair competitive market environment, the ship put into operation the first condition that must be satisfied that the ship's safety and environmental protection, if this condition is not met, the ship will not have to market operation fundamentals. The pursuit of profit-maximizing enterprises to meet safety and environmental protection should be based on advanced technology to achieve full play. This can take full advantage of the market economy forces to promote vessel greenhouse gas emissions standardization. Strengthen and amend the relevant standards. Society for environmental protection have become increasingly demanding, it is an irreversible trend. With the social and economic development, ship technology, changes in market conditions, the design of the ship will be new demands. Greenhouse gas emissions for the ship, the proposed combination of the relevant IMO requirements, to further enhance greenhouse gas emissions associated with the standardization of research and standard development, increase the design index of the technical indicators CO2 limit requirements.


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